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Wednesday, December 6, 2023

Why Do We Name Hen ‘Hen’ However Cow Meat ‘Beef’?

It was in 2010, in a shared kitchen at Cambridge College, that I first got here to harbor a secret disdain for the semantic squeamishness of English-speaking meat-eaters. I used to be making ready uncooked hen for dinner when a hallmate walked in. He, a sturdy, English-born scholar of Economics, stopped on the sight of me, and I had the distinct impression of getting, as soon as once more, executed one thing fallacious.

I used to be, that 12 months, an American scholar learning overseas at one of the crucial adorned establishments on this planet, and made conscious of it. I used to be intimidated by formal robes, butlers within the eating corridor, cleaners within the dorm rooms, lawns one was forbidden to stroll throughout except invited by college, 800-year-old libraries, a brand new pal who, one evening, drunkenly referred to as the aged porter a “fucking prole.” I imagine I laughed. Everybody else did. Later, I realized that “prole” was quick for “proletariat,” and the drunken pal’s household owned a named property.

I used to be continually excusing myself that 12 months, or pretending to grasp references, or swallowing dumb questions, or smiling on the joke that I, an American, couldn’t pronounce my very own identify. At formal dinners for which college students wore black robes beneath the vaulted ceiling like extras from Harry Potter, I saved knocking into servers who set down every plated course. Meals was all the time served over the left shoulder, however how was I to know? Servers weren’t the one ones to whom I mumbled apologies. That had begun at British immigration, when an officer at Heathrow regarded meaningfully at my disorganized papers and stated, “Shouldn’t a Cambridge scholar know higher?” The implication was that I used to be no Cambridge scholar. “I might refuse to allow you to in,” he stated, the primary of many unamusing jokes I laughed at.

On this specific night in 2010, in that still-life comprising me, my hen, and my hallmate, it was the hallmate who turned and walked out. Minutes later, a second hallmate — they had been all English boys — entered, paled, and backed out stammering, ceding the kitchen to me.

In England, in fashionable English, a dwelling cow arrives on the plate as “beef,” a calf as “veal,” a sheep as “mutton,” and a pig is transmuted into “pork,” which can be referred to as, prettily, the opposite chicken. The names of the dwelling animals have Anglo roots, whereas the names of the components got here from the French — a trademark of Norman conquerors who, within the Eleventh century, hoped to subjugate the “savage” Natives of the British Isles. “Beef,” “veal,” and “pork” had been phrases of the ruling class, imbued with sophistication and cultural superiority, far faraway from dwelling animals with their guts and blood and shit. These phrases, it occurred to me in 2010, had been a type of hypocrisy.

That “hen” stays “hen” has its foundation in constructed hierarchies, too. Chickens had been peasant meals in Eleventh-century England. These days, to say one thing “tastes like hen” is to vow no gaminess or oddness, no funk or distinction, no whiff of barnyard animal. “Hen” has transcended meals to attain a sort of inert neutrality. Most of my Cambridge hallmates cooked hen in our shared kitchen. They most well-liked breasts and tenderloins, typically shortened to “tenders.” Neat digits of meat, tenders arrived precut and slid bloodlessly from plastic trays, the violence of their severing from the “loin” — an uncomfortably human physique half — having been executed offstage.

In Mandarin, a pig is a pig is a pig, whether or not oinking or braised; and chickens, ideally, include ft and head intact. In some circumstances, a second character could also be appended to the identify of the animal, in order that 猪 (zhū) is known as 猪肉 (zhū roù). 肉 (roù) means “meat” or “flesh.” Fairly than conceal the animal, 肉 attracts consideration to the truth that meals is carved from a dwelling creature — or added to 1. 肉 can be utilized by Chinese language relations to touch upon weight acquire. Actually: You have got grown (human) meat.

I misplaced weight my first few months at Cambridge, partially as a result of my meals had been now not sponsored. Again at my American college, my need-based scholarship had coated on-campus meals, in addition to tuition and housing; in Cambridge, I confronted the disagreeable discovery that meals was not thought-about a monetary want. Every dish of pudding or squash I positioned on my eating corridor tray elevated my bank card debt. The value-to-calorie ratio of every chew I took in that attractive, centuries-old eating corridor was sharper than my very own starvation. It got here to really feel of a chunk: that an empire unwilling to attach a chunk of meat to the dwelling animal from which it got here would additionally refuse to attach the training of a thoughts to the wants of a physique; would serve, with exemplary manners, every course over my left shoulder whereas ignoring, on the opposite facet, centuries of colonial hypocrisies at house and overseas.

Some months into my time at Cambridge, I stop the eating corridor and commenced to prepare dinner my very own meals, creating a sturdy love for smoked mackerel, pink Leicester, and something below the Sainsbury’s Fundamentals model. By the point my hallmates walked into the kitchen in 2010, I didn’t have my palms on simply any hen; I had my palms in one, as a result of I used to be spatchcocking it.

Spatchcocking is a preparation rumored to return from the Irish phrase “dispatch the cock,” such that the dying of the fowl is inseverable from its cooking. My approach: Crunch a knife down both facet of the hen’s backbone to be able to take away it. Push on the breast until flesh and cartilage pancake into a fair flatness. Maintain the scraps. A spatchcocked hen roasts in 45 minutes and prices lower than the equal variety of pre-cleaned breasts, wings, thighs, drumsticks. I discovered magnificence within the economic system of the approach: the way in which backbone turned inventory and giblets gravy, the definitive crunch of the breastbone that yielded, solely with effort, to the burden of my entire physique. It feels extra trustworthy: I really feel it. These days, at a sure kind of Chinese language restaurant within the Inside Sundown of San Francisco or in Sundown Park, Brooklyn, I nonetheless thrill at an outdated, laminated menu that gives “cow abdomen” or “pig bung;” I belief extra a spot that doesn’t try and dissimulate with “offal” or “tripe.”

Again in Cambridge, with my hen within the oven, I knocked on my hallmates’ doorways and provided to brew a pot of tea. Main the boy who accepted again into the kitchen, I felt gracious: the host, in command. He entered with a hesitation acquainted to me; and although he relaxed to see the counters wiped and the knife put away, the odor of roasting meat remained: strong, unapologetic, rising stronger and extra current as we drank our tea within the kitchen that I had, in some half, claimed.

This is able to not be the tip of my discomfort in establishments equivalent to that one; however typically, in rooms designed to make me uncomfortable, I’ve regarded throughout the desk on the plate of an individual for whose consolation the room and establishment had been designed, and imagined how pale the opposite would possibly flip if the hen on their plate had been to develop again its bones and feathers, if the pork had been to heave up on hoofed trotter. I’ve scraped the innards from quails, pulling hearts and spleens like strings of darkish, fleshy pearls; I’ve regarded right into a fish’s cooked, opalescent eye as a result of how else might I angle my chopstick to dig one of the best meat from its cheek? At instances like this, there’s a bracing rigor to my disdain — a fortifying splash of vinegar. I keep in mind different locations, different values, different rooms the place I eat higher than they do.

C Pam Zhang is the creator of How A lot of These Hills Is Gold and Land of Milk and Honey, each out now.
Kenn Lam is an illustrator and visible artist with a deep curiosity in meals; notably by way of the lens of tradition, historical past and identification.

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